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WANGIAN / PERFUME


  • Daripada Salman Al-Farsi R.a, Nabi SAW bersabda : " Tidaklah seorang lelaki mandi pada hari Jum’at dan bersuci sesuai dengan kemampuannya, memakai minyak wangi dan wangi-wangian yang ada di rumahnya, kemudian keluar menuju masjid, tidak memisahkan antara dua orang (yang sedang duduk) kemudian solat semampunya, kemudian diam memperhatikan khutbah imam, kecuali akan diampunkan dosanya antara Jum’at dengan Jum’at lainnya ”.( H.R Imam Ahmad dan Al-Buklhari, Nailul Authar 3 : 235 )
 
Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils and aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents used to give the human body, animals, objects, and living spaces a "pleasant" smell.

The word perfume used today derives from the Latin "per fumum", meaning through smoke. Perfumery, or the art of making perfumes, began in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt and was further refined by the Romans and Persians. Although perfume and perfumery also existed in India, much of its fragrances are incense based. The earliest distillation of Attar was mentioned in the Hindu Ayurvedic text Charaka Samhita. The Harshacharita, written in 7th century A.D. in Northern India mentions use of fragrant agarwood oil. The world's first recorded chemist is considered to be a woman named Tapputi, a perfume maker who was mentioned in a cuneiform tablet from the second millennium BC in Mesopotamia.

She distilled flowers, oil, and calamus with other aromatics then filtered and put them back in the still several times.

Perfume types reflect the concentration of aromatic compounds in a solvent, which in fine fragrance is typicallyethanol or a mix of water and ethanol. Various sources differ considerably in the definitions of perfume types.



The concentration by percent/volume of perfume oil is as follows: Perfume extract (Extrait):

a) 15-40% (IFRA: typical 20%) aromatic compounds

b) Eau de Parfum (EdP), Parfum de Toilette (PdT): 10-20% (typical ~15%) aromatic compounds. Sometimes listed as "eau de perfume" or "millésime"

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c) Eau de Toilette (EdT): 5-15% (typical ~10%) aromatic compounds

d) Eau de Cologne (EdC): Chypre citrus type perfumes with 3-8% (typical ~5%) aromatic compounds

e) Splash and After shave: 1-3% aromatic compounds

The precise formulae of commercial perfumes are kept secret. Even if they were widely published, they would be dominated by such complex ingredients and odorants that they would be of little use in providing a guide to the general consumer in description of the experience of a scent. Nonetheless, connoisseurs of perfume can become extremely skillful at identifying components and origins of scents in the same manner as wine experts.


The traditional classification which emerged around 1900 comprised the following categories:


- Single Floral: Fragrances that are dominated by a scent from one particular flower; in French called a soliflore. (e.g. Serge Lutens' Sa Majeste La Rose, which is dominated by rose.)

- Floral Bouquet: Containing the combination of several flowers in a scent.

- Amber: A large fragrance class featuring the sweet slightly animalic scents of ambergris or labdanum, often combined with vanilla, flowers and woods. Can be enhanced by camphorous oils and incense resins, which bring to mind Victorian era imagery of the Middle East and Far East.

- Wood: Fragrances that are dominated by woody scents, typically of agarwood, sandalwood and cedar. Patchouli, with its camphoraceous smell, is commonly found in these perfumes.Leather: A family of fragrances which features the scents of honey, tobacco, wood and wood tars in its middle or base notes and a scent that alludes to leather.

- Chypre: Meaning Cyprus in French, this includes fragrances built on a similar accord consisting of bergamot, oakmoss, patchouli, and labdanum. This family of fragrances is named after a perfume by François Coty. A notable example is Mitsouko (a popular name for girls in Japanese) by Guerlain.

- Fougère: Meaning Fern in French, built on a base of lavender, coumarin and oakmoss. Houbigant's Fougère Royale pioneered the use of this base. Many men's fragrances belong to this family of fragrances, which is characterized by its sharp herbaceous and woody scent.

Natural and synthetics are used for their different odor characteristics in perfumery:


Naturals Synthetics
Variance Vary by the times and locations where they are harvested. It's much more difficult to produce consistent products with equivalent odor over years of harvest. As such, the perfumer has to "manually" balance-out the natural variations of the ingredients in order to maintain the quality of the perfume. Much more consistent than natural aromatics. However, differences in organic synthesis may result in minute differences in concentration of impurities. If these impurities have low smell (detection) thresholds, the differences in the scent of the synthetic aromatic will be significant.
Components Thousands of chemical compounds. Depending on purity, consists primarily of one chemical compound.
Scent Uniqueness Bears a somewhat similar scent to its originating material, depending on the extraction method. Similar to natural scents if the compounds are the same. Novel scent compounds not mimicking natural compounds however, bear little scent likeness to natural materials.
Scent Complexity Deep and complex fragrance notes. Softer with subtle scent nuances. Pure and pronounced fragrance notes. Structural and defined.
Price Perfume composed of largely natural materials are usually much more expensive. Perfumes using largely synthetic aromatics can be available at widely-affordable prices. However, synthetic aromatics and perfumes are not necessarily cheaper than naturals. Some synthetics can be more costly than most natural ingredients due to various factors such as the complexity of systhesis or extraction procedure.

 

Fragrance compounds in perfumes will degrade or break down if improperly stored in the presence of:
- Heat
- Light
- Oxygen
- Extraneous organic materials

The Greatest Perfume over The Century:

390 Fiori di Capri Carthusia
1709 Farina Eau de Cologne Johann Maria Farina Johann Maria Farina (1685-1766)
1714 Kölnisch Wasser Farina gegenüber Johann Maria Farina
1780 Royal English Leather Creed
1789 Number Six Caswell-Massey
1792 4711 Echt Kölnisch Wasser 4711 Wilhelm Muhlens
1798 Eau de Lubin Parfum Lubin Pierre François Lubin
1799 Gold Medal Atkinsons
1806 Jean Marie Farina Roger & Gallet
1815 Freshman Truefitt & Hill Francis Truefitt
1821 Lavender Floris
1828 Pot Pourri Santa Maria Novella
1853 Eau de Cologne Imperial Guerlain Pierre-François-Pascal Guerlain
1862 Fantasia de Fleurs Creed
1872 Hammam Bouquet Penhaligon's William Henry Penhaligon
1889 Jicky Guerlain Aimé Guerlain
c. 1900 Bouquet Nouveau Roger & Gallet
1901 Edwardian Bouquet Floris
1902 Blenheim Bouquet Penhaligon's William Henry Penhaligon
1904 Mouchoir de Monsieur Guerlain Jacques Guerlain
1908 Florida Water Murray & Lanman
c.1910 Astris L.T. Piver L.T. Piver
c.1912 Chypre D'Orsay
1911 English Fern Penhaligon's William Henry Penhaligon
c. 1911 Illusion Drake
c.1911 Narcise Noir Parfums Caron
1912 L'Heure Bleue Guerlain Jacques Guerlain
1912 Quelques Fleurs L'Original Houbigant
1913 April Violets Yardley
c. 1913 La Feuilleraie Gueldy
c.1913 Muguet Coty
1913 Violette Précieuse Parfums Caron Ernest Daltroff
1916 Acqua di Parma Colonia Acqua di Parma
1917 Chypre de Coty François Coty François Coty
1919 Mitsouko Guerlain Jacques Guerlain
1919 Tabac Blond Caron Ernest Daltroff
1921 N°5 Chanel Ernest Beaux
1922 June Roses Morny
1922 No. 22 Chanel Ernest Beaux
1922 Nuit de Noël Caron Ernest Daltroff
1924 Cuir de Russie Chanel Ernest Beaux
c.1925 Mon Studio Calliste
c.1925 My Sin Lanvin
1925 Shalimar Guerlain Jacques Guerlain
1926 Bois des Îles Chanel Ernest Beaux
1926 Paris Coty
1927 Arpège Lanvin André Fraysse
1927 Bellodgia Caron Ernest Daltroff
1927 L'Aimant Coty Francois Coty, Vincent Roubert
1928 Soir de Paris Bourjois Ernest Beaux
1929 Liu Guerlain Jacques Guerlain
1930 Acqua di Parma Profumo Acqua di Parma
1930 Joy Jean Patou Henri Alméras
1932 Je Reviens House of Worth Maurice Blanchet
1932 Tabu Dana Jean Carles
1933 Vol de Nuit Guerlain Jacques Guerlain
1933 Angélique Encens Creed
1934 Blue Grass Elizabeth Arden Fragonard
1934 Dunhill for Men Alfred Dunhill
1934 Pour Un Homme Caron Ernest Daltroff
1935 Nuit de Longchamp Parfum Lubin
1936 French Cancan Caron Ernest Daltroff
c.1936 Kobako Bourjois
1937 Colony Patou
1938 Dancing Time Durbarry
1939 It's You Arden
1940 Snuff Schiaparelli
1943 Arôme 3 D'Orsay
1944 Bandit Robert Piguet Germaine Cellier
1944 Femme Rochas Edmond Roudnitska
1945 White Shoulders Elizabeth Arden
1946 Coeur-Joie Nina Ricci Germaine Cellier
1946 Ma Griffe Carven Jean Carles
1947 Vent Vert Balmain Germaine Cellier
1948 Fracas Robert Piguet Germaine Cellier
1948 L'Air du Temps Nina Ricci Françis Fabron
1949 Rose Caron Michel Morsetti
1949 English Leather Dana
1950 Orange Spice Creed
1951 Eau d'Hermès Hermès Edmond Roudnitska
1951 Prince Douka Marquay
1952 Wind Song Prince Matchabelli Georges V. Matchabelli
1952 Quadrille Balenciaga
1953 Youth Dew[1][2] Estée Lauder Estée Lauder
1954 Electrique Max Factor
1954 Poivre Caron Michel Morsetti
1955 Chanel Pour Monsieur Chanel Henri Robert
1955 Pine Sylvestre Silvestre Lino Vidal
1956 Diorissimo Christian Dior Edmond Roudnitska
1957 Le De Givenchy
1957 L'Interdit (original) Givenchy Francis Fabron
1959 Monsieur de Givenchy Givenchy Michel Hy
1959 Cabochard Parfums Grès Bernard Chant
1960 Unforgettable Avon
1961 Eau d'Hadrien Annick Goutal Annick Goutal
1961 Vetiver Guerlain Jean-Paul Guerlain
1962 Bal a Versailles Jean Desprez Jean Desprez
1963 Diorling Christian Dior Paul Vacher
1964 Idole de Lubin Parfum Lubin
1965 Aramis Aramis
1966 Eau Sauvage Christian Dior Edmond Roudnitska
1967 Climat Lancôme
1968 Irisia Creed
1969 Ô Lancôme Robert Gonnon
1969 Chamade Guerlain Jean-Paul Guerlain
1970 Equipage Hermès Guy Robert
1970 Sélection Verte Creed
1971 No. 19 Chanel Henri Robert
1972 Diorella Christian Dior Edmond Roudnitska
1972 Fleurissimo Creed
1973 Charlie Revlon Harry A. Cuttler
1973 Ciara Revlon
1974 Baby Soft Love's
1974 Cristalle Chanel Henri Robert
1974 Eau de Guerlain Guerlain Jean-Paul Guerlain
1975 Zeste Mandarine Pamplemousse Creed
1976 Lily of the Valley Penhaligon's
1976 Violetta Penhaligon's
1976 Z-14 Halston Vincent Marsello
1977 Opium Yves Saint Laurent Jean-Louis Sieuzac
1978 Anaïs Anaïs Cacharel Raymond Chaillan/Roger Pellegrino
1978 Azzaro Pour Homme Azzaro Gérard Anthony, Martin Heiddenreich, Richard Wirtz
1978 Bluebell Penhaligon's Michael Pickthall
1978 Cinnabar Estée Lauder
1978 Magie Noire Lancôme G. Goupy / J-C Niel
1978 White Linen Estée Lauder Sophia Grojsman
1979 Nahéma Guerlain Jean-Paul Guerlain
1980 Ivoire Balmain Francis Camail
1980 Patou Pour Homme Jean Patou Jean Kerleo
1981 Kouros Yves Saint Laurent Pierre Bourdon
1981 Must de Cartier Cartier Jean-Jacques Diener
1981 Nombre Noir Shiseido Jean-Yves Leroy
1981 Giorgio Giorgio Beverly Hills Group Work: M.L. Quince, Francis Camail, Harry Cuttler
1982 Drakkar Noir Guy Laroche Pierre Wargnye
1982 Trussardi Trussardi
1982 Quorum Antonio Puig
1983 Paris Yves Saint Laurent Sophia Grojsman
1984 Coco Chanel Jacques Polge
1985 Obsession Calvin Klein Jean Guichard
1985 Poison Christian Dior Jean Guichard
1985 Green Irish Tweed Creed Oliver Creed
1986 Prescriptives Calyx Prescriptives Sophia Grojsman
1987 Lou Lou Cacharel Jean Guichard
1988 Cool Water Davidoff Pierre Bourdon
1988 Eternity Calvin Klein Sophia Grojsman
1988 Fahrenheit Christian Dior Jean-Louis Sieuzac, Maurice Roger
1989 Red Door Elizabeth Arden Carlos Benaim, Olivier Gillotin
1989 Samsara Guerlain Jean-Paul Guerlain
1990 Trésor Lancôme Sophia Grojsman
1991 Gendarme Gendarme
1992 Angel Thierry Mugler Olvier Cresp
1992 Bois de Violette Serge Lutens Christopher Sheldrake
1992 L'eau d'Issey Issey Miyake Jacques Cavallier
1992 Feminitè du Bois Shiseido Christopher Sheldrake
1993 Jean-Paul Gaultier Classique Jean-Paul Gaultier Jacques Cavallier
1994 CK One Calvin Klein Harry Fremont and Alberto Morillas
1995 24, Faubourg Hermès Maurice Roucel
1995 Hugo Hugo Boss Francis Kurkdjian/Creations Aromatiques
1995 Le Mâle Jean-Paul Gaultier Francis Kurkdjian
1995 Millésime Impérial Creed
1996 Acqua di Gió Pour Homme Giorgio Armani Alberto Morillas and Jacques Cavallier
1996 Angel Men/A*Men Thierry Mugler
1996 Dolce Vita Christian Dior Pierre Bourdon and Maurice Roger
1996 Spring Flower Creed Olivier Creed
1996 Tommy Girl Tommy Hilfiger
1996 Organza Givenchy Sophie Labbé
1997 Envy Gucci Maurice Roucel
1997 Lolita Lempicka Lolita Lempicka Annick Menardo
1998 Hypnotic Poison Christian Dior Annick Menardo
1998 Bulgari Black Bulgari Annick Menardo
1998 Noa Cacharel Olivier Cresp
1999 Dzing! L'Artisan Olivia Giacobetti
1999 J’Adore Christian Dior Calice Becker
2000 En Passant Frederic Malle Olivia Giacobetti
2000 Tea for Two L'Artisan Olivia Giacobetti
2001 1872 Clive Christian
2001 Chergui Serge Lutens Christopher Sheldrake
2001 Coco Mademoiselle Chanel Jacques Polge
2001 Light Blue Dolce & Gabbana Olivier Cresp
2001 Mugler Cologne Thierry Mugler Alberto Morillas
2001 No. 1 Clive Christian
2001 Nu Yves Saint Laurent Jacques Cavallier
2001 X Clive Christian
2002 Addict Christian Dior Thierry Wasser
2002 Black Cashmere Donna Karan
2002 2 Comme des Garçons
2002 Chance Chanel Jacques Polge
2002 M7 Yves Saint Laurent Alberto Morillas, Jacques Cavallier
2003 100% Love Shaping Room Sophia Grojsman
2003 Amor Amor Cacharel Laurent Bruyere, Dominque Ropion
2003 Beyond Paradise Estée Lauder
2003 Brit Burberry
2003 Narciso Rodriguez For Her Narciso Rodriguez Francis Kurkdjian & Christine Nagel
2004 Eau des Merveilles Hermès Ralf Schwieger / Nathalie Feisthauer
2004 Flowerbomb Viktor & Rolf Olivier Polge / Carlos Benaim / Domitille Bertier
2004 Pure Poison Christian Dior
2005 Alien Theirry Mugler Dominique Ropion / Laurent Bruyere
2005 Chinatown Bond No. 9 Aurelien Guichard
2005 Euphoria Calvin Klein
2005 Un Jardin sur le Nil Hermès Jean-Claude Ellena
2006 Black Orchid Tom Ford
2006 Terre d'Hermès Hermès Jean-Claude Ellena
2006 Rose 31 Le Labo Daphne Bugey
2006 Lily & Spice Penhaligon's
2006 Insolence Guerlain Maurice Roucel
2006 L'Homme Yves Saint Laurent
2007 Fleur du Mâle Jean-Paul Gaultier Francis Kurkdjian
2007 Prada Infusion d'Iris Prada
2007 Gucci by Gucci Gucci
2007 Black Roberto Cavalli
2008 8 88 Comme des Garçons
2008 Gucci by Gucci - Pour Homme Gucci
2008 Diamonds Emporio Armani
2009 It's Me! CnRCreate
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